In the old days all we had was BASIC and Assembly Language. Sure, you could get the p-system and write software in Pascal. And you could write programs in LOGO for the Apple II, Atari 8-bits and the TI 99/4. But if you wanted people to use your software, you wrote it to run on systems people actually owned. In the early 80's, that meant you wrote in Assembly Language or BASIC.
Now don't get me wrong, BASIC isn't the world's greatest language for software development. But it was easy to implement on 8-bit microcomputers, a LOT easier than Assembly and there were plenty of books around to teach kids how to use it. Every now and again I wax poetic about BASIC; usually the feeling passes quickly, but every now and again I get motivated to revisit the past.
This text is a simple description of how Jason Grigsby and I pieced together our own text adventure games in 1982 and 1983. BASIC has a deservedly bad reputation in serious software circles, but you can actually structure programs reasonably. Old-school BASIC offered very little support for real data structures or advanced programming technique, but that didn't mean you couldn't make a reasonably well structured program.
And that's what I'm trying to do here: document how we made a BASIC program that didn't suck.
The program I'm presenting here is a reconstruction of a program I wrote in 1983 for the TI 99/4 and the Commodore 64. In the late 70's, I noticed the Byte Shop down the street was selling software in plastic baggies with xeroxed manuals. I figured it was easy enough to write an adventure game. Even if I couldn't sell it at the Byte Shop, I could use it as an example of my programming prowess.
"SUNDOG" was an idea I got from playing too much Snapshot as a kid and looking over Jason's shoulder while he played Infocom's Starcross game. It's completely unrelated to the game "Sundog : Frozen Legacy" -- I came up with the name at least a year before that game was released, though dang, FTL made a MUCH better game than I did. This version of SUNDOG casts the player as the sole survivor of an accident aboard the Scout Ship Sundog. You must work out how to escape your crippled ship and signal the core systems for a rescue.
SUNDOG was broken down into three parts: escape the dying scout ship, retrieve the air raft from the alien derelict and figure out how to power the ship's ansible to call for a rescue. Each of these three parts was implemented as a separate basic program. For simplicity's sake, I'm only documenting the first part here. The second and third parts are implemented with almost entirely the same core code, it's just the DATA statements that describe objects, etc. are changed. To the right is a map of all the locations in the first part of the game.The original program is lost to humanity, but I remember it's structure well enough to reconstruct it. The version presented here targets Chipmunk BASIC which should run on MacOS-X and Linux. If you want to run this program, you'll need to install BASIC before continuing.
I also assume you know what a text adventure game is (also called Interactive Fiction.) Click over to the Wikipedia article if you're unfamiliar with this class of game programs.
Classic BASIC isn't well known for it's support for data structures. But it does support arrays; most BASICs from the late 70's even support string arrays. So you could do something like this:
10 DIM A$(3) 20 A$(0) = "HELLO" 30 A$(1) = "WORLD" 40 A$(2) = "GOOD TO SEE YOU!" 50 FOR I = 0 TO 2 : PRINT A$(I) : NEXT I
This small program should emit the following output:
HELLO WORLD GOOD TO SEE YOU!
We use this feature of BASIC to hold all our data about commands, directions, objects and locations.
Let's take a look at some code from SUNDOG.BAS; in this excerpt, we're using a READ command to read the directions we want to support into a string array called D$. The number of directions is stored in DC.
12000 REM READ DC And D$ Array 12010 RESTORE 32010 12020 READ DC 12030 DIM D$(DC) 12040 FOR I = 0 TO DC - 1 : READ D$(I) : NEXT I 32000 REM DIRECTIONS ON THE SHIP 32010 DATA 4 32020 DATA "FORE","STARBOARD","AFT","PORT"
This code fragment first RESTORE's the read pointer to line 32010, reads the number of directions as DC, uses the DIM command to dimension a 4 element string array and then reads each direction into one of the array elements. After running this code, the following fragment would print out the four directions:
FOR I = 0 TO DC : PRINT D$(I) : NEXT I
If you look at the source code for SUNDOG.BAS, you'll see that we do the same thing for objects, locations and commands.
If you look at code, you'll see we're doing something funky with room descriptions; we're adding a bunch of numbers to each of room description (I'm modifying it slightly for this example):
32030 REM LOCATIONS IN THE SHIP 32040 DATA 4 32050 DATA "Galley" 32051 DATA "This is the ship's galley, where the crew make their meals. The Captain's stateroom is fore, your bunk is to the starboard and the engineer's quarters are aft." 32052 DATA 1,2,3,-1 32060 DATA "Captain's Stateroom" 32061 DATA "Barely larger than a walk-in closet, the Captain's Stateroom is what passes for luxury on a scout ship. A porthole to starboard reveals inky blackness beyond while a door to the galley is aft." 32062 DATA -1,-1,0,-1 32070 DATA "Navigator's Bunk" 32071 DATA "This is your bunk, stuffed into a pantry adjacent to the galley. A flimsy door to port opens to the galley beyond." 32080 DATA "Engineer's Quarters" 32081 DATA "While not exactly luxurious, the engineer's quarters are large enough for a desk and a regular bed." 32082 DATA 0,-1,-1,-1
The numbers in lines 32052, 32062, 32072 and 32082 are "adjacency indices." They tell you which room is in which direction from the current room. In SUNDOG, we have four directions you can travel: FORE, STARBOARD, AFT and PORT. The adjacency indices tell you which room you'll wind up in if you go in that direction. The directions are ordered and so are the indices. If you go FORE from the Galley, you'll wind up in room number 1, the Captain's Stateroom. If you go STARBOARD, you'll wind up in room 2, the Navigator's Bunk. You can't go PORT from the Galley, so that entry has a -1 (which means "you can't go this way.")
Here's the code that reads the locations into the L$ string array and the A adjacency array:
12060 REM READ LC, L$, LD$ and A arrays 12070 RESTORE 32040 12080 READ LC 12090 DIM L$(LC),LD$(LC),A(LC*DC) 12100 FOR I = 0 TO LC - 1 12110 READ L$(I),LD$(I) 12120 FOR J = 0 TO DC - 1 12130 READ A(I*DC+J) 12140 NEXT J 12150 NEXT I
Note that we're storing the adjacency indexes in a one dimensional array. I did this because it's easy enough to convert from a location / direction pair to a single index and I was worried I would want to port the program to a BASIC that didn't support two dimensional arrays.
We'll look at how we move from location to location a little later.
What's an adventure game without the ability to pick up a lantern, swing a sword or read a secret book? (Or in the case of SUNDOG, put on a Vacc Suit?)
Objects in SUNDOG are initialized the same way as Locations and Directions, but with a little extra meta-data. Objects are implemented as the O$ string array which contains their name: Keycard, Vaccsuit, Wrench, etc. There's a separate array, OL which lists each object's location. There's also a OF array that lists each object's flags.
Given the examples above, you can probably guess how we initialized the various object related arrays, so I'll leave it up to you to dig into the source if you're interested. Instead, let's talk about locations of objects. Each object is initialized with a default location, stored in the OL array. Locations greater than or equal to zero correspond to a location (like what's described in the L$ string array.) An item whose location is less than zero is *INSIDE* another object (not in a location.) The absolute value of the location is the object it's inside. A location of -32768 means the object has disappeared. If it's -32767, then the object is in your inventory.
Here's a code snippet that will tell you where things are:
100 FOR I = 0 TO OC - 1 110 PRINT I;" ";O$(I);" "; 120 IF OL(I) >= 0 THEN 210 130 IF OL(I) = -32767 THEN 190 140 IF OL(I) = -32768 THEN 170 150 PRINT "IN OBJECT "; O$(ABS(OL(I))) 160 GOTO 220 170 PRINT "DISAPPEARED" 180 GOTO 220 190 PRINT "IN INVENTORY" 200 GOTO 220 210 PRINT "IN LOCATION "; L$(OL(I)) 220 NEXT I
But what about the flags? What the heck are they?
This is where it gets a little bit tricky. Objects aren't just things you can pick up and carry with you. Objects are also things you can interact with linguistically. If I typed the command "OPEN DRAWER," I need the parser to understand that the drawer is something you can open but at the same time it's not something you can take. So each object has a set of flags stored as a bit field in the OF array:
0x01 - Viewable - they'll show up in a room's description 0x02 - Takeable - you can take/drop this object 0x04 - Openable - you can open or close this object 0x08 - Opened - is this object currently open? 0x10 - Container - you can PUT things inside this object if it's open. 0x20 - Lockable - you can lock this object 0x40 - Locked - it's currently locked
Continuing the drawer example, the drawer would have flags of 0x14 because it starts the game closed, it *IS* openable, you can't take it and it isn't listed as an object in the room.
SUNDOG understands five command formats:
Since the format and interpretation of words in a command are dependent on the number of words in a command, it's relatively easy to parse commands.
SUNDOG uses C$ to hold the unparsed command line; after it is parsed, each element of the the N$() string array holds one word of the command. Here's what the parser looks like:
100 NC = 5 : DIM N$(NC) 110 C$="PUT RED KEYCARD IN DRAWER" 120 S = 1 : K = 0 130 E = INSTR(C$," ",S) 140 IF E <> 0 THEN GOTO 180 150 N$(K)=MID$(C$,S,LEN(C$)) 160 K = K + 1 170 GOTO 230 180 N$(K)=MID$(C$,S,E-S) 190 S=E+1 200 K = K + 1 210 IF K >= NC THEN 230 220 GOTO 130 230 FOR J = 0 TO K - 1 : PRINT J;" ";N$(J) : NEXT J
Before we ask the user for a command, we print out where we are. Most text oriented games of this era were smart enough to not split words between lines. Writing the code for that is a little more work than I was interested in doing, so i pre-formatted descriptions of locations. In the code I'm writing here, I'm assuming you have a 60 by 16 character screen, mostly to ensure it fits on my TRS-80 Model I. If I port this to a Commodore 64, VIC-20 or TI-99/4, I'll have to reformat the text.
Text adventure games from the '80s would normally only display a full description of a location the first time you visit it. After that, you use the LOOK command to see what's there. I use a bit field in an array of integers to store whether or not you've visited a particular location.
At the beginning of the program, we create an array N integers long where N is the number of rooms divided by the size of an integer (some BASICs have 16 bit integers, others store integers as floating point numbers, which complicates things.)
100 REM LC - Number of Locations (i.e.- Location Count) 110 REM BPI - Bits Per Integer 120 REM VC - Size of the "visited" array 130 REM V() - Visited array 140 LC = 20 : BPI = 15 : VC = INT( LC / BPI ) + 1 : DIM V( VC ) 150 END 1000 REM SUBROUTINE: SET ROOM AS VISITED 1010 REM INPUT: L = ROOM TO VISIT 1020 I = INT( L / BPI ) 1030 J = L - ( I * BPI ) 1040 V(I) = V(I) OR ( 2 ^ J ) 1050 RETURN 1100 REM SUBROUTINE: Visited? Set's K to 1 if this location's been visited. 1110 I = INT( L / BPV ) 1120 J = L - I * BPV 1130 IF ( V(I) AND 2^J ) = 0 THEN K=0 ELSE K=1 1140 RETURN
So each time through the main loop, we would call the routine at 1100 with L being the current location. If K is 1, then that means we've been there before and we shouldn't print the full location description. Then we call the routine in 1000 to set the location as being visited.
We also need to print out what items are in the room. For this we simply loop through all the objects we know about and see if their location is the same as our current location:
1200 REM SUBROUTINE: PRINT ITEMS IN THIS ROOM 1210 PRINT "ITEMS HERE:" 1220 J = 0 1230 FOR I = 0 TO OC - 1 1230 IF OL(I) <> L THEN GOTO 1270 1240 IF OF(I) AND 1 = 0 THEN GOTO 1270 1250 PRINT O$(I) 1260 J = J + 1 1270 NEXT I 1280 IF J <> 0 THEN GOTO 1300 1290 PRINT "*NO ITEMS HERE*" 1300 RETURN
You now have enough to hobble together a simple interactive fiction. The SUNDOG story required a few more commands dealing with putting on the VaccSuit and exiting the Scout Ship Sundog, but you can easily reverse engineer what I did by looking at the code; the major structure is as defined above.
The code for Sundog has been moved to https://github.com/OhMeadhbh/sundog.