An Abstract Type System? Hunh?

[ This article originally appeared on my blog on April 15th, 2010. -Ed.]

Today's VWRAP essentials post is for a more technical audience. If you're reading this, I'm going to assume you're familiar with VWRAP, the Virtual World Region Agent Protocol. if you need a refresher, you can look at "What is VWRAP?" [1] post on this blog, read the VWRAP Working Group Charter [2], or read the latest draft of the "VWRAP : Intro and Goals" [3] document.

Early in the list of technical deliverables for the VWRAP working group is the document titled "Abstract Type System for the Transmission of Dynamic Structured Data." [4] In this post we're going to answer the question "What is an abstract type system and why should I care?"

c? c++? python? c#? php? javascript?

There are a bunch of languages used by virtual world programmers. Which one should we standardize on? If you answered "we shouldn't standardize on any of them," then you gave the right answer. VWRAP is a wire protocol intended to be implementable by any language. If you can open a network socket and receive arbitrary HTTP requests, we're hoping you can use it to implement VWRAP.

But this introduces a bit of a quandry. The type behavior of languages is mildly different. Integers in c are 32 bits in length, unless they're 16 or 64. JavaScript seems to not have a limit, transparently converting regular integers into multi-precision integers (except when it doesn't.) And in some languages the results of adding integers to strings isn't the same as others.

While most languages provide a plethora of types (like integers, strings, dates, etc.) the rules for adding them together or converting them to other types are inconsistent. In normal development this isn't too much of a problem; on the rare occasion programmers have to code in different languages, there are frequently tools to manage the differences. These tools usually only work on a specific system, however. they're designed not to work in the general case, but tailored for a particular development environment.

It's still really nice to be able to use familiar types like integers, strings, dates and so on when describing protocol messages. But if there's no easy way to convert between types used in different implementations, what do you do?

The LLSD Abstract Type System

An early version of the LLSD abstract type system was introduced internally in 2005 and was intended to hide type system differences between C++, python and ruby based services. The intent was to store structured data independent of language-based type behavior. When a python program read data written by a C++ program, it would know what the rules were. Integers were ALWAYS 32 bits wide. Dates were ALWAYS stored in the same format; not a 32 bit int on some systems or a string on others.

Over the past five years, LLSD has been refined somewhat, but the basic rules are the same: there are a fixed number of types that all languages SHOULD be able to understand. There are a fixed number of serialization formats (currently there are three) each with fixed rules about how data is serialized and later de-serialized.

The benefit of this system is if you specify your abstract type system used to store or transmit data, and you make the serialization rules easy to implement, future programming languages, environments and operating systems should have minimal problems parsing the data.

LLSD for the Impatient

The LLSD abstract type system defines 11 types: undefined, boolean, integer, real, string, date, URI, UUID, binary, array and map. The last two are "collections" meaning they're... well... they're collections of other types. Arrays are (as you might have guessed) collections indexed by position while maps are indexed by keys. The undefined type is present to represent situations where the existence of an item is implied, but there's not enough information to assign a type to a data element. An example of when you attempt to retrieve an array or map element that doesn't exist. Instead of getting an error, you get an undefined.

LLSD defines conversions between types that your implementing language should support. type conversions will get more important later when we talk about the LLIDL interface description language and programming styles that support loosely coupled systems. But for now just know that if you really want to convert the type of a data element, that's fine, but LLSD has a few rules about the conversion.

LLSD also defined default values for each type. Defaults surface when you make an illegal type conversion. so if you convert a date to a boolean, you'll get the boolean default value (false.) If you convert an undefined value into any other type, you get the default value for that type. So if you attempted to read past the end of an array and cast that value as an integer, you would get 0, the default integer.

LLSD has three serialization schemes: XML, JSON and Binary. Each scheme is, in theory, no better than the other, but they were each designed for slightly different use cases. The XML serialization scheme is useful for environments that already use XML for other reasons. JSON is useful for web services and the Binary serialization scheme is useful for systems that need low message processing overhead.

Better examples of serialized LLSD data can be found in the internet draft referenced above, but here is a very simple example of a map with three members: an integer, a string and an array:

    <string>Zocalo Merchants</string>

Maddening Weirdness Can Be Your Friend

There has been some criticism of LLSD's behavior regarding undefined type conversions and what to do when accessing a non-existent collection element. There are some very good arguments in favor of raising an exception. The primary benefit is that if there's an error involving type conversion weirdness, developers are more likely to catch it if the system signals an exception rather than "fails silently."

But there are two arguments against raising an execption. First, it's more complicated and requires that error handling be added to the abstract type system. Secondly, it may lead to redundant error checking and brittle systems.

The argument goes something like this: "if i'm writing a service consuming an LLSD message, i'm probably going to be checking values at the application layer to make sure they make sense. if i'm checking them there, why do i need the presentation layer to check that they make sense?"

This argument implies that erroring out when you find an "illegal" type conversion doesn't really buy you anything, and you would have to complicate the specification to support it.


So that's it. LLSD is a pretty small specification. There are already several oepn source implementations for the curious, and the most recent specification is available at the web site. Please take a look at it and give us feedback on the vwrap mailing list.


  1. What Is VWRAP?
  2. VWRAP Working Group Charter
  3. VWRAP : Intro and Goals
  4. Abstract Type System for the Transmission of Dynamic Structured Data